What is melasma?: Types, Causes, Natural Cure



What is melasma?

Melasma is a common skin condition characterized by the development of brown or grayish-brown patches on the face, primarily on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and upper lip. It can also affect other sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the neck and forearms. Melasma is more common in women than in men, and it often occurs during pregnancy (referred to as “pregnancy mask” or “chloasma”), hence the condition is sometimes associated with hormonal changes. However, it can also affect people who aren’t pregnant.

What is the cause of melasma?

The exact cause of melasma is not fully understood, but it is believed to be the result of a combination of factors, including hormonal, genetic, and environmental influences. Here are the key factors thought to contribute to the development of melasma:

Hormonal Changes: 

Hormonal fluctuations play a significant role in melasma. This is why melasma is often referred to as “the mask of pregnancy” or “chloasma” because it commonly occurs during pregnancy. Hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause can trigger or worsen melasma. Estrogen and progesterone, in particular, are believed to influence melanin production in the skin.

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation: 

Sun exposure is a major factor in the development and exacerbation of melasma. UV rays from the sun stimulate the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) in the skin to produce more melanin, leading to the formation of dark patches. UV exposure can also worsen existing melasma, making it crucial to protect the skin from the sun.


There appears to be a genetic predisposition to melasma, as it often runs in families. Some individuals may have a genetic susceptibility to developing melasma when exposed to triggering factors like hormones and UV radiation.

Cosmetic Products and Irritants:

Certain cosmetics or skincare products that irritate the skin can contribute to the development or exacerbation of melasma. Harsh chemicals or abrasive treatments may worsen the condition.

Other Factors: 

Other factors that may contribute to melasma include thyroid disorders, medications, and medical conditions that affect hormones or sensitivity to UV radiation.

It’s important to note that while these factors are associated with melasma, the exact cause can vary from person to person. Melasma is often a complex interplay of these factors, and the precise mechanism of its development may not be fully understood in every case.

How I got rid of my melasma naturally?

Managing melasma naturally can be challenging because the condition often requires a combination of treatments and lifestyle changes, and natural remedies may not provide rapid or consistent results. However, some individuals have reported improvements in their melasma by following a holistic and natural approach. Here are some steps you can consider if you want to try managing melasma naturally:

Sun Protection: 

Protecting your skin from UV radiation is essential. Use natural sunscreens with high SPF and wear protective clothing, such as hats and sunglasses, when you’re exposed to the sun. Seek shade whenever possible.

Dietary Changes: 

While no specific diet can cure melasma, consuming a balanced diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins may support overall skin health. Include plenty of fruits, vegetables, and foods high in vitamin C and E. These nutrients can help protect your skin from UV damage.


Drink plenty of water to keep your skin hydrated. Proper hydration can help maintain skin health and reduce the appearance of pigmentation.

Topical Remedies: 

Some natural ingredients may help in managing melasma, although results can vary from person to person. These include:

  • Aloe Vera: Applying aloe vera gel to the affected areas may help soothe the skin.
  • Licorice Root Extract: This natural ingredient is sometimes used in skincare products for its potential to lighten dark spots.
  • Vitamin C Serum: Some people find that vitamin C serums can help improve skin tone and reduce pigmentation.
  • Green Tea Extract: Topical application of green tea extract may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Stress Management:

Stress can potentially worsen melasma, so practicing stress-reduction techniques like yoga, meditation, or mindfulness may help.

Lifestyle Changes:

Avoid using harsh skincare products that may irritate your skin, and be gentle when cleansing your face. Consider using a mild, natural cleanser.

Consult a Naturopathic or Holistic Practitioner: 

If you’re interested in natural remedies, consider consulting with a naturopathic doctor or holistic practitioner who specializes in skincare. They can provide personalized guidance and may recommend herbal remedies or dietary supplements tailored to your needs.

It’s essential to approach natural remedies for melasma with patience and realistic expectations. Results may take time, and natural treatments may not work for everyone. Additionally, it’s crucial to monitor your skin for any adverse reactions to natural products or ingredients.

What foods make melasma worse?

Certain foods and dietary factors may potentially worsen melasma, although the relationship between diet and melasma is complex and not fully understood. Melasma is primarily influenced by hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors, and while diet plays a role in overall skin health, its direct impact on melasma development or exacerbation is not as well-documented. That said, some dietary components may contribute to skin sensitivity and pigmentation changes in some individuals. Here are a few dietary factors to consider:

High-Glycemic Foods: 

Foods with a high glycemic index, such as sugary snacks, white bread, and refined cereals, can lead to spikes in blood sugar levels. Elevated blood sugar may contribute to skin inflammation, which can potentially worsen melasma.

Excessive Sugar Intake: 

Consuming large amounts of sugar can promote inflammation and may contribute to skin issues. High sugar intake is associated with a process called glycation, which can damage collagen and elastin fibers in the skin and affect skin health.

Dairy Products: 

Some individuals with melasma may find that dairy products worsen their skin condition. Dairy can contain hormones and growth factors that may influence skin pigmentation.


Excessive alcohol consumption can dehydrate the skin and potentially exacerbate skin issues, including melasma. Alcohol can also dilate blood vessels, making skin red and blotchy.

Spicy Foods: 

Spicy foods can cause flushing and redness in some people. While not a direct cause of melasma, they may temporarily worsen the appearance of skin pigmentation.

Citrus Fruits: 

Some people are sensitive to citrus fruits like lemons and limes, which can be acidic and may irritate the skin. Citrus fruits can also make the skin more photosensitive, potentially increasing the risk of UV damage.

Processed and High-Fat Foods: 

A diet high in processed or high-fat foods may contribute to overall skin inflammation and affect skin health. A diet rich in healthy fats (e.g., from avocados, nuts, and fatty fish) may be more skin-friendly.

Can low vitamin D cause melasma?

There is no direct evidence to suggest that low vitamin D levels cause melasma. Melasma is primarily influenced by factors such as hormonal changes, genetics, and sun exposure. However, vitamin D does play a role in skin health, and some studies have explored its potential relationship with melasma in a broader context.

What vitamins help melasma?

Vitamin C: 

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect the skin from UV damage and reduce the appearance of pigmentation. It may also promote collagen production and overall skin health. You can find vitamin C in topical serums and creams, as well as in dietary supplements.

Vitamin E: 

Vitamin E is another antioxidant that can help protect the skin from oxidative stress. It may aid in reducing inflammation and improving skin texture. You can apply vitamin E oil topically or include foods rich in vitamin E, such as almonds, sunflower seeds, and spinach, in your diet.

Niacinamide (Vitamin B3): 

Niacinamide has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and may help in reducing skin pigmentation. It is commonly included in skincare products, but you can also find it in dietary supplements.

Vitamin A: 

Vitamin A, particularly in the form of retinoids like retinol, may help improve skin texture and reduce pigmentation by promoting cell turnover. It’s available in both topical and oral forms, but the use of retinoids should be discussed with a dermatologist due to potential side effects and interactions.


Glutathione is an antioxidant that may help lighten the skin and reduce pigmentation. Some individuals take glutathione supplements or receive intravenous treatments, but its effectiveness is still a topic of research and debate.


Selenium is a mineral that, when consumed as part of a balanced diet, may contribute to overall skin health. It has antioxidant properties and can be found in foods like Brazil nuts, whole grains, and fish.

Polypodium Leucotomos Extract: 

This herbal extract, derived from a fern native to Central and South America, has been studied for its potential to protect the skin from UV damage and reduce the risk of melasma recurrence. It is available in some dietary supplements and skincare products.

What are 3 different types of melasma?

Melasma is typically categorized into three main types based on the distribution and location of the pigmentation on the face. These types are:

Epidermal Melasma: 

This is the most common type of melasma, characterized by brown or gray-brown patches that appear on the surface of the skin. Epidermal melasma is caused by an increase in melanin (pigment) in the top layer of the skin (the epidermis). It often has a well-defined border and may be more responsive to treatment compared to other types of melasma.

Dermal Melasma:

Dermal melasma involves the deposition of melanin in the deeper layers of the skin (the dermis). The pigmentation appears as bluish-gray or brown patches that are less well-defined than those seen in epidermal melasma. Dermal melasma can be more challenging to treat and may require a combination of approaches, including laser therapy.

Mixed Melasma: 

As the name suggests, mixed melasma is a combination of both epidermal and dermal melasma. It is characterized by pigmentation that affects both the surface and deeper layers of the skin. Mixed melasma often presents as brownish-gray patches with varying degrees of definition. Treatment for mixed melasma typically involves a combination of topical treatments and possibly laser therapy.

It’s important to note that the classification of melasma into these types is primarily based on the depth and distribution of pigmentation within the skin layers.

Is melasma caused by liver?

Melasma is not directly caused by the liver. While the exact cause of melasma is not fully understood, it is primarily related to factors such as hormonal changes, genetics, sun exposure, and skin sensitivity. Liver function and health play a role in overall well-being, but there is no direct connection between liver health and the development of melasma.

Can Men Get Melasma?

Yes, men can get melasma, although it is more commonly seen in women. Melasma is a skin condition characterized by the development of brown or gray-brown patches on the face, and it can affect individuals of any gender.


In conclusion, melasma is a common skin condition characterized by brown or gray-brown patches on the face, often triggered or exacerbated by factors such as hormonal changes, genetics, sun exposure, and skin sensitivity. Managing melasma involves a comprehensive approach aimed at reducing pigmentation and preventing recurrence.

Leave a Reply